5.6 Declarations and Types

5.6.1 Common Data Types

5.6.1.1 The UEFI Specification defines a set of common data types that must be used to ensure portability between different compilers and processor architectures.

Any abstract type that is defined must be constructed from other abstract types or from common EFI data types.

5.6.1.2 The use of int, unsigned, char, void, static, long is a violation of the coding convention.

The corresponding EFI types must be used instead.

"EFI Data Types" below contains the common data types that are referenced in the interface definitions defined by this specification. Per the UEFI Specification, version 2.3.1:

"Unless otherwise specified, all data types are naturally aligned. Structures are aligned on boundaries equal to the largest internal datum of the structure, and internal data is implicitly padded to achieve natural alignment."

Table 6 EFI Data Types (slightly modified from UEFI 2.3.1)

Mnemonic

Description

BOOLEAN

Logical Boolean. 1-byte value containing a 0 for False or a 1 for True. Other values are undefined.

INTN

Signed value of native width. (4 bytes on IA-32, 8 bytes on X64, and 8 bytes on the Intel(R) Itanium(R) processor family)

UINTN

Unsigned value of native width. (4 bytes on IA-32, 8 bytes on X64, and 8 bytes on the Intel(R) Itanium(R) processor family)

INT8

1-byte signed value.

UINT8

1-byte unsigned value.

INT16

2-byte signed value.

UINT16

2-byte unsigned value.

INT32

4-byte signed value.

UINT32

4-byte unsigned value.

INT64

8-byte signed value.

UINT64

8-byte unsigned value.

CHAR8

1-byte character.

CHAR16

2-byte character. Unless otherwise specified, all strings are stored in the UTF-16, 2-byte, encoding format as defined by the Unicode 2.1 and ISO/IEC 10646 standards.

VOID

Undeclared type.

EFI_GUID

128-bit buffer containing a unique identifier value. Unless otherwise specified, aligned on a 64bit boundary.

EFI_STATUS

Status code. Type UINTN.

EFI_HANDLE

Handle to a device driver. Type VOID *.

EFI_EVENT

Handle to an event structure. Type VOID *.

EFI_LBA

Logical block address. Type UINT64.

EFI_TPL

Task priority level. Type UINTN.

"Modifiers for Common EFI Data Types" defines modifiers that are used in function and data declarations. The IN, OUT, OPTIONAL, and UNALIGNED modifiers are used only to qualify arguments to a function. They should never appear in a data type declaration. The EFIAPI modifier is used to ensure the correct calling convention is used between different modules that are not linked together. Use this modifier at the entry of drivers, events, and member functions of protocols.

The EFIAPI modifier must be used for all UEFI defined API functions, as well as for any function that takes a variable number of arguments. All protocol functions as well as public functions exposed by drivers must also be declared EFIAPI. This establishes a common calling convention for functions that could be referenced by other code that has potentially been built using a different compiler, with a different native calling convention.

Table 7 Modifiers for Common EFI Data Types (reference the UEFI Specification and Beyond Bios)

Mnemonic

Description

IN

Datum is passed to the function.

OUT

Datum is returned from the function.

OPTIONAL

Datum that is passed to the function is optional, and a NULL may be passed if the value is not supplied.

UNALIGNED

Datum is byte packed and is not naturally aligned.

VOLATILE

Declares a variable to be volatile and thus exempt from optimization to remove redundant or unneeded accesses. Any variable that represents a hardware device should be declared as VOLATILE.

CONST

Declares a variable to be of type const. This type is a hint to the compiler to enable optimization and stronger type checking at compile time.

EFIAPI

Defines the calling convention for EFI interfaces. All EFI intrinsic services and any member function of a protocol must use this modifier on the function definition.

5.6.2 Constants

5.6.2.1 EFI Constants

"EFI Constants" below lists the EFI constants that should be used to represent certain concepts.

Table 8 EFI Constants

Mnemonic

Description

TRUE

One = ( 1 < 2 ) == 1; Any non-zero value is TRUE.

FALSE

Zero = ( 2 < 1 ) == 0

NULL

VOID pointer to zero. ((void*)0)

5.6.2.2 Enumerated Types

  • The elements of the enumerated type must follow the data and function naming convention.

    The enum shall be declared as a typedef with the name of the typedef following the type and macro naming conventions in` "Type and Macro Names".

  • The last element of the enum should be a maximum member element.

    This convention allows for bounds checking on an enum to support debugging and sanity checking the value that is assigned to an enum. It is also recommended that the enum members be named carefully, such that their names would not tend to collide with other variable or function names.

    typedef enum {
    EnumMemberOne, ///< Automatically initialized to zero.
    EnumMemberTwo, ///< This has the value 1
    EnumMemberMax ///< The value 2 here indicates there are two elements.
    } ENUMERATED_TYPE;

    This obviously will not work if values are explicitly assigned out-of-sequence or are duplicated.

  • All constants that will be used "as is" should be declared as enums.

    An enum does not cause code to be generated until the enum is used, whereas a const int will cause space for the int to be allocated as well as the code generated whenever the int is used. The use of enums allows type checking to be performed, while the use of macros does not.

5.6.2.3 Macro Constants

Constants that will be used to construct other values should be declared as macros. These include bit field definitions and masks.

5.6.2.4 Pointers and Constants

There are three different ways pointers and constants can interact:

  • Pointer to Constant:

    CONST UINTN * PointerToConst;

    PointerToConst is a variable pointer to a constant UINTN.

  • Constant pointer to variable:

    UINTN * CONST ConstPointer;

    ConstPointer is a constant pointer to a variable UINTN.

  • Constant pointer to constant:

    CONST UINTN * CONST ConstPointerToConst;

    ConstPointerToConst is a constant pointer to a constant UINTN.

5.6.3 Structure Declaration

Structures shall be declared as a typedef with one of two different styles depending on the use of the structure. If the structure is not self-referential, or there is no forward reference to it, the structure may be defined anonymously; see Section "Structure Reference".

This anonymous definition is valid because we typedef the structure in the definition.

  • The structure name and typedef name shall follow the type and macro naming conventions in "Type and Macro Names" on page 24`

  • Structure instances: Variables, parameters, members, etc., must follow the file, function, and data naming conventions in "Identifiers" through "Name Space Rules".

  • Structures are always defined in a typedef struct name {...} type; format.

The "name" tag is allowed only if the structure is self-referential or the target of a forward reference.

5.6.3.1 Structures shall not be directly declared.

The following are not allowed:

struct name {...}; // OK if object of forward reference
struct {...} variable; // Never OK
struct name {...} variable; // Never OK

5.6.3.2 Structure Declaration with Forward Reference or Self-Reference

/// Sample forward declaration of a structure.
typedef struct EFI_STRUCT_NAME EFI_STRUCT_NAME;
‚Äč
/// Sample self-referential structure declaration.
typedef struct EFI_STRUCTURE_NAME {
...
struct EFI_STRUCTURE_NAME *StructPointer; ///< Sample self reference
} EFI_STRUCT_NAME;

5.6.3.3 Structure Declaration without Forward Reference

/** Brief description of sample structure declaration.
*
* Detailed description of purpose and use of this structure.
**/
typedef struct {
Atype memberOne; ///< Briefly describe memberOne
...
Ztype memberN; ///< Briefly describe memberN
} EFI_STRUCTURE_NAME;

5.6.3.4 Bit Fields

A member of a structure or union may be declared to consist of a specified number of bits (including a sign bit, if any). That member is referred to as a bit-field. Bit fields differ from other members in that:

  • Bit fields may only be of type INT32, signed INT32, UINT32, or a typedef name defined as one of the three INT32 variants.

  • It is compiler defined whether INT32 is signed or unsigned.

  • The order of allocation of bit-fields within a storage unit is compiler defined.

  • The alignment of the addressable storage unit is unspecified.

  • A bit-field may not extend from one storage unit into another.

A bit-field with only a colon and a width (no declarator), indicates an unnamed bit-field. Unnamed bit-fields are useful for padding to conform to externally imposed layouts.

Specifying a bit-field with a width of 0 (zero) indicates that no further bit-fields are to be packed into the unit in which the previous bit-field, if any, was placed.

5.6.3.4.1 Visual C++ Specific

  • The alignment requirement for each non-bit-field member is the same as the largest alignment requirement of the members. Thus, every member will have the same alignment.

  • A "plain" int bit-field is treated as a signed int bit field.

  • Bit fields are allocated within a storage unit from least-significant to most-significant bit.

5.6.3.4.2 GCC Specific

  • The alignment requirement for non-bit-field members of structures is determined by the target ABI.

  • By default, a "plain" int bit-field is treated as a signed int, but this may be changed by the '-funsigned-bitfields' option.

  • The order of allocation of bit-fields within a unit is determined by the target ABI.